Islam

Islam

Monday, 27 March 2017

Sex within marriage for pleasure

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Question

From what I know of sex in Islam is that it is recreational as well as reproductive. It is not necessary to have reproduction in mind when having sexual intercourse. If I make love to my wife without the intention of having a baby, am I doing wrong?

Answer

One of the objectives of marriage is to preserve chastity by minimizing the tendency to commit adultery. 

The Prophet (peace be upon him) encouraged us to marry. Therefore, your relationship with your wife is part of obedience to Allah, and it is a charity for the two spouses to indulge in their relationship with one another, because they are, in fact, preserving their chastity and hence their religion, and they are satisfying each other's desires in a lawful manner. 

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Your approach to your wife is a charity.” 

They (the Companions) said: “O Messenger of Allah, we are fulfilling our own desire and we deserve a reward?” 

He said: “If a person fulfills his desires unlawfully, is he not deserving of punishment? Thus, if he does so lawfully, he deserves a reward.” [Sahîh Muslim 

And Allah knows best.

-islamtoday.net

CHAPTER 2, VERSES 165 – 167: THE GREATEST SIN AND HOW TO BE SAVED FROM IT

"And [yet], among the people are those who take other than Allah as equals [to Him].  They love them as they [should] love Allah.  But those who believe are stronger in love for Allah.  If only, those who are unjust could visualize [the Day of Judgement] when they will see punishment, [they would come to know] for sure that all power belongs to Allah and that Allah is stern in retribution.  On that Day, those leaders who were being followed, when faced with their punishment, will renounce those who followed them and the bonds which united them will break asunder.  The followers will say, "If it could be possible for us to live again, we would renounce them as they have renounced us today." Thus, God will show them the fruits of their deeds.  They will sigh with regret, and shall not be able to come out of the Hellfire." [Quran 165-167]
The three essential verses we are discussing here come from the middle portion of Chapter 2, The Cow (Al-Baqarah).  This chapter of 286 verses is the longest in the Quran and was revealed in Medina.  After the migration to Medina the Muslims began to focus on building a community and thus the chapters revealed there tended to focus on rules.  However, The Cow was revealed over a long period of time and its subject matter covers a range of issues including doctrines of faith and fundamental concepts.  These three verses are considered essential because they reveal a bitter end for those who choose to worship something other than God. 
In the verse previous to these verses, God describes a number of His blessings, particularly those blessings that come from the wonders of the universe.  He then begins our essential verses by expressing incredulity in the fact that even though humankind knows and has experience of these things, there are still some people who make a conscious choice to worship other than Him (God).  They love these statues or idols or people or things with a commitment that belongs only to God and this is not rational.  God has given humankind a myriad of signs, signs that suit all forms of logic and the different needs of human beings.   However, instead of coming to the most logical conclusion, some people choose to worship stones or statues or trees or stars.  Worship is due to God alone.  Being devoted to something other than Him is a dangerous pastime. 
Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, also always stressed the importance of not worshipping anything other than God.  One morning after the prayer Prophet Muhammad explained to his companions the importance recognising God’s complete power over all things.  He said, that God said, "This morning one of My slaves became a believer in Me and one a disbeliever.  As for him who said, ‘We have been given rain by the grace of God and His mercy,’ that one is a believer in Me, and a disbeliever in the stars; and as for him who said: ‘We have been given rain by such-and-such a star, that one is a disbeliever in Me, and a believer in the stars.’"[1]
True believers are those who take God as their only deity and love Him above everything else.   They obey Him, are fearful of His punishment and hope for His mercy and forgiveness.  They are the ones who will be successful. 
If the ones who are unjust to God, that is do not fulfil His right to be worshipped Alone, could see what was going to happen to them on the Day of Judgement they would have no doubt that God is  the Most Powerful and that He is stern in His retribution. 
On the Day of Judgment, those so-called religious leaders will disassociate themselves from their gullible followers who fell easy prey to their deception.  On that fateful Day those who were followed will admit to their followers that they were themselves astray.  In addition to this, Satan himself will denounce his followers and declare his belief in God.  I had no authority over you he will say, you chose to follow me.[2] Any bonds that existed between the followed and the followers will be broken, cast asunder in the face of what they finally understand.   
The followers will beg for a chance to return to their former lives.  They will long to be able to renounce all the things they worshipped instead of God but alas it will be far too late.  God will show them their deeds and the fruits of their labours and they will realize that they will never be able to emerge from Hell.  They will regret not listening to the words of the messengers and prophets that were sent amongst them.  Many will regret not listening to the words of Prophet Muhammad and not taking the verses of the Quran seriously.  Those who mocked the verses will long to hear them recited and long for a chance to listen to them and repent.  But it will not be granted to them. 
The most fundamental belief in Islam is the belief in One God.  It forms the basis of Islam and is mentioned over and over again throughout the verses of Quran.  Humans were not created except that they should worship God.[3] Thus it seems only logical that giving worship or obedience to something other than God is a great sin; one that cannot be forgiven.  If a person dies without having repented from this most grievous sin, their Hereafter will be one of punishment and Hellfire.  These three essential verses stress the importance of staying away from polytheism.  Prophet Muhammad said that whoever died while claiming that God had a rival will enter Hell.[4] -islamreligion.com


FOOTNOTES:
[1]Saheeh Bukhari & Saheeh Muslim
[2]Quran 14:22
[3]Quran 51:56
[4]Saheeh Bukhari

Sunday, 26 March 2017

Paying bribe to avoid injustice

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Question

In the university that I attend, there are a few teachers who fail students who do not give them “gifts” and who give grades according to the value of the “gifts” that they receive. I am faced with this situation now. I do not want to pay this bribe, but if I don’t, I will be unjustly failed in the course and may be forced to repeat the year. What should I do?

Answer

If the situation is really as you describe it, then it is hoped that there is no sin in your giving this “gift”. This is because you are being coerced into doing so in order to secure what is rightfully yours and avoid suffering from injustice and oppression. 

There is nothing of bribery on your part, since you are not offering the “gift” to get something that is not rightfully yours. 

It is related from Ibn Mas`ûd that, while he was in Abyssinia, he was unjustly apprehended and forced to give over two gold coins to secure his release. 

It is related from some of the jurists among the Successors that “there is no sin in paying a bribe to protect oneself from the other person’s injustice and oppression.” [Tuhfah al-Ahwadhî (4/471)]

At the same time, you as students need to find a way of reporting these teachers to the administration. This comes under the Islamic duty of forbidding wrongdoing. When all the students conspire to remain silent, they are in fact obstructing justice and allowing these criminal teachers to persist in their wrongful conduct.

-islamtoday.net

Overcoming bad habits

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Question

How does a person kick a bad habit that he has had for years?

Answer

When a person recognizes his personal shortcomings and bad habits and has the intention to change them, then that person has taken the first step towards making a positive change in his life. 

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Verily forbearance is achieved by putting it into practice.” [al-Tabarânî in al-Awsat and al-Bayhaqî in Shu`ab al-Imân

This means that a person can change his bad habits and manners into good ones. 

This can be achieved by taking the following steps:
1. To ask Allah sincerely and frequently to help you. 

2. To remember the bad habits upon doing the bad deed. For example, when you are angry, remember the bad habit of raising your voice, and when eating, remember the prohibition of eating with the left hand, and so forth. 

3. Sometimes you may forget your endeavors and lapse into your old bad habits. So do not be despair, but try again. Allah will surely help you. 

4. You might wish to speak with others who used to suffer from the same bad habits and benefit from their experiences. They can tell you how they managed to overcome their problems. 

5. I advise you to read books and listen to recorded lectures that discuss the problem you are trying to overcome. This often proves helpful.
Allah says: “O you who believe! Seek help in patience and prayer. Indeed Allah is with those who are patient.” [Sûrah al-Baqarah: 153]

-islamtoday.net

Saturday, 25 March 2017

al-Zihâr

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Question

A woman’s husband repudiated her on three different occasions, saying that she was unlawful to him “like the back of his mother”. However, when he repudiated her, he was angry. Then he repudiated his wife for the third time. She would like to know if these repudiations were valid.

Answer

It is a sin for a man to say that his wife that she is unlawful to him like the back of his mother. The Qur’ân describes this statement as “iniquitous and false.” 

If a man says such a thing to his wife, he may not have sexual relations with his her again until after he frees a slave. If he is unable to do this (which is the case today in the absence of slaves), then he must fast two consecutive months before he can have sexual relations with his wife again. 

He must fast. If he is truly and absolutely incapable of fasting, then and only then may he turn to the next form of expiation, which is the feeding of 60 poor people. 

[Refer to: Sûrah al-Mujâdilah: 3-5]

-islamtoday.net

Woman wearing face veil or gloves in the state of ihram

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Question

When a woman who generally veils her face in public is performing Hajj or `Umrah, does she keep on wearing her face veil? If not, then why?

Answer

We follow what the Prophet teaches us in this matter: “Do not wear a shirt or pants or a turban or a cloak. If a person does not have a pair of sandals, he may then wear leather socks, but he must cut them so that they come below his ankles. Do not wear anything dyed with saffron or warse. A woman should wear neither a veil nor gloves.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî (1707)] 

The woman performing Hajj (pilgrimage) or `Umrah may not wear a veil over her face while in the state of ihrâm. Neither may she wear gloves. 

However, if force of habit causes her put on either a veil or gloves by mistake or due to forgetfulness, she is not obligated to sacrifice a sheep. 

When she completes her observation of ihrâm for her Hajj or `umrah, she can wear whatever she likes. 

If the woman can be seen by strangers, she may temporarily conceal her face from them in some way other than by using a veil. 

She has to cover all the rest of her body whether she is in prayer, performing `umrah, or engaged in something else. 

The mother of the believers, `A’ishah, said: “Men would pass by us while we were with the Prophet (peace be upon him) engaged in our Hajj rites. We would hide our faces, and when they passed by, we would uncover them.” 

And Allah knows best.

-islamtoday.net

Friday, 24 March 2017

Moisture of the vagina

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Question

When I am not menstruating, I notice that my private parts are usually moist with discharge. I asked all my close Muslim friends and I discovered that the majority have the same condition. And after speaking to a Muslim female medic she told me that the female body discharges fluid as a natural way of cleaning, and she also stated this was the natural condition of the majority of female population and not an illness. How does a Muslim woman maintain her state of purity if she invariably has continious discharge?

Answer

The matter of moisture and natural discharge from the vagina has been investigated by Sheikh al-`Uthaymîn, Sheikh Yûsuf al-Qâsim, and Sheikh Ahmad al-Khalîl. Here are their answers:

About vaginal discharge
by Sheikh Muhammad b. Sâlih al-`Uthaymîn

People of knowledge agree that anything which comes out from urinary tract is impure. All other things that come out of the private parts are also generally construed to be impure except for semen.

However, I became dissatisfied with this generalization once I came to know that most women are suffering from permanent discharge. Therefore, we embarked upon further research and further discussions with doctors. From this, we came to our final ruling in this regard, which is as follows:

If such liquid is coming out from the urinary tract, then it is as we said above; impure and invalidates wudû’. On the other hand, if the discharge comes out from the vagina, then it requires a new wudû’, but it is pure and does not require the clothes it moistens to be washed.

---------------------

About vaginal discharge
by Sheikh Yûsuf al-Qâsim

What comes from the vagina, emanating from the birth canal, is pure. It requires neither a ritual bath, nor wudû’, nor the washing of affected clothing. The reason for this is the absence of any textual evidence – to the extent of my knowledge – that indicates the impurity of this discharge or that it invalidates a woman’s wudû’.

This is very pertinent, especially since this discharge is something that affects all women, from the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him) up to today. If it had been impure or if it had nullified wudû’, this would have been clarified by the Lawgiver.

Also, this discharge is not a waste product – like urine and feces which are the waste products of our food and drink. It is a natural emanation from the womb. This is why it increases with pregnancy, especially during certain months.

This ruling is the final opinion that Sheikh al-`Uthaymîn settled upon at the end of his life.

It was also the view of Ibn Hazm.

And Allah knows best.

---------------------

About vaginal discharge
by Sheikh Ahmad al-Khalîl

The moisture which comes out from women’s vagina is a matter of disagreement among scholars. The most correct rule, in my opinion, is that it is pure and does not invalidate wudû’.

-islamtoday.net

Meaning of oath of divorce depends on husband's intention

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Question

My husband told me to place my hand on the Quran and swear that I would not do a certain act (which he told me not to do. I do not want to disclose what it is that he does not want me to do). I told him that I would not do it. He told me to put my hand on the Quran at that very time and say that I would not do it. I asked him why I would have to put my hand on the Quran for that and told him that he did not trust me. Then he said that if I did not place my hand on the Quran before March 22, 2017, I will be divorced. He says that he intended divorce when saying it. He did not mention how I should put my hand on it. He simply said, “Place your hand on the Quran before March 22, 2017, or you will be divorced.” My question is: will my placing my hand be acceptable if I do not perform ablution and spread a single or double layer of cloth on the Quran and then place my hand on it without directly touching it? Will this be ok in order to fulfil the condition and not be divorced coming March 22, 2017? Or do I have to place my hand without the piece of cloth in between my hand and the Quran given that he said that it was a condition that I place my hand on it? Even if there is no hardship in performing ablution nor any excuse for not doing so, is it still ok to place my hand on the Quran with a piece of cloth and without ablution and have the condition fulfilled even though he said that I am to place my hand on the Quran? And if I did not perform ablution and placed my hand directly on the Quran without a piece of cloth, will the condition have been fulfilled? Please answer these queries. Thank you.

Answer

All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) is His slave and Messenger.
With regard to what is related to fulfilling the oath of your husband in this matter, then this depends on his intention by telling you to put your hand on the Quran. If he intended that you place your hand directly on the Quran, then his oath can only be fulfilled by placing your hand directly on the Quran, but if he intended that you put your hand on the Quran, even if indirectly, then his oath is fulfilled by putting your hand on the Quran even by placing a cloth between your hand and the Quran.
Ibn Qudaamah, may Allah have mercy on him, said, “In brief, the oath depends on the intention of the person who made it; so if he intended with his oath what it may possibly be understood to mean, then his oath is understood to mean it whether what he intended corresponds to the apparent meaning of the words that he used or not...
As regards the ruling on putting the hand on the Quran for a person who is not in a state of ablution, then the matter is flexible and you can act according to the view of those who say that it is permissible to do that with a barrier, such as cloth or the like, even if performing ablution is not difficult for you.
Allah knows best.
-islamweb.net

Thursday, 23 March 2017

Abandoning university because of the presence of the opposite sex

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Question

I am a young Muslim who was born and grew up in the West. I'm now in College because my father really wants me to go to. Women outnumber men at this college and they dress quite provocatively. Last year, I secretly dropped out twice because the temptation was too much for me. After that, I decided that I would not go back. However, my father insists that I go to college. Do I have to go? I have many friends who did not go to college or university and they are doing ok!

Answer

We would like to applaud you for your concern to maintain your religion and adhere to Allah’s commands. 

We advise you not to leave studying for the reasons you have said, but to choose a more conservative college with fewer temptations. Even if all colleges availible to you are as you said, you should go ahead and continue your studies because it is the only way Muslims can take to gain knowledge when studying in western countries. The Muslim should go to college and benefit from what is good and leave what is bad. Allah says: “So fear Allah as much as you can”.

Think of something that can save you from this atmosphere. Get married if you can. Concentrate on performing acts of worship, such as prayer. This will strengthen you to avoid forbidden things. Keep the company of pious people who can help you to do good things. Concentrate on your studies in order to finish them as soon as possible. I know some pious people who went through the same trials and overcame them while maintaining their chastity and modesty. 

You have to take care of your parents and seek their pleasure, as they, by way of your relationship to them, could be a cause of you going to Paradise or to Hell. 

And Allah knows best.

-islamtoday.net

Wednesday, 22 March 2017

Ruling on covering up for someone who committed sin

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QUESTION :

What is the ruling on one who finds out that someone is persisting in committing a sin, and he covers up for him and is content just to advise him in the hope that he will be guided aright? Is he sinning because he has not informed the relevant authorities about him?
ANSWER :
Praise be to Allah
It is permissible to cover up for him if he is not one of those who take the matter of sin lightly and he is not known to commit a lot of sins or to commit prohibited actions. In this case, he should advise him, tell him to fear Allah and warn him against doing it again.
But if he is a person who regularly commits sin and evil deeds, then the one who finds out about it will not have discharged his duty until he refers the matter to someone who can punish him in a way that will deter him from persisting in it.
If the sin affects the rights of another person, such as if he sees him stealing from someone’s house or shop, or he sees him committing adultery with the wife of So and so, then it is not permissible for him to cover up for him, because that is a transgression against the rights of another person, it affects that person’s marriage and is a betrayal of another Muslim. Similarly, if he finds out that he killed or injured a Muslim, he should not cover up for him and cause the rights of a fellow Muslim to be neglected; rather he should testify against him to the relevant authorities, so that matter may be dealt with. And Allah knows best. End quote.
Shaykh ‘Abdullah ibn Jibreen (may Allah preserve him).
-islamqa.info

Deterring people from backbiting (Gheebah)


Definition of Gheebah:
When the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) was asked about backbiting, he  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention )answered: “To mention your brother in a manner which he dislikes”. Then he  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) was asked, “What if my brother actually has (this failing) that I made mention of?” The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) said: “If (that failing) is actually found in your brother, you in fact backbit him, and if that is not in him it is a slander.” [Muslim]
Backbiting refers to a Muslim mentioning his Muslim brother in a manner that the latter dislikes, whether by referring to a defect in his body, or in his lineage, or in his morality. The meaning of insulting is included in backbiting, whether it is in the form of words, gestures, or writing.
Ruling of Gheebah:
Backbiting is forbidden in the Noble Quran and the Sunnah. The person who commits it is given the similitude of a person who eats the flesh of his dead brother. Allah Says (what means): “…And do not spy or backbite each other. Would one of you like to eat the flesh of his brother when dead? You would detest it…” [Quran 49: 12]

To highlight the sanctity of the Muslim, the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention )said in his sermon during the Farewell Pilgrimage: "…Your blood, your wealth and your honor are sacred, as this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this land of yours, are sacred…?" [Ahmad and Muslim] This firmly proves how far beyond limits one transgresses when he backbites his fellow Muslim

Let us think deeply about this, and regard the orders of Allah and His Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) with the awe that they deserve. In the sight of Allah, violating the rights of your brother by backbiting is equivalent to violating the sanctity of the Day of Sacrifice, in the month of Thul-Hijjah, in Mina. Do we really realize the enormity of this violation of a Muslim's honor?
Islamic perception of Gheebah:
Al-Baraa' Ibn 'Aazib  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him narrated that the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention )said: "There are seventy-two degrees of Ribaa (usury), the least of which is equivalent to committing adultery with one's own mother. The worst of them (the seventy two degrees) is a man's insulting his brother's honor (i.e. by backbiting)." [Ibn Jaroot]
`Aa’ishah  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  her said: “I said to the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ): 'It's bad enough that Safiyyah is such and such. (Some of narrators said: she is short).' He  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) said: "You have said a word which, if it could be mixed with the water of the sea, it would have been… (i.e., the enormity of it is such that, if it were mixed with the vast water of the sea, it would spoil it.)"  [Abu Dawood]

A word which, if it could be mixed with the water of the sea, it would have been…! One word alone could do this, and have such a far-reaching impact! So what do you think of the backbiting people of today, whose tongues never cease to wag? What vast oceans could be tainted and corrupted by their words? How many quiet lives are disrupted by them?

'Amr Ibn Shu`ayb narrated from his father from his grandfather  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  them: (the people) mentioned a man to the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention )saying: "He doesn't eat until he is fed and he doesn't visit anybody until they have visited him first." The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) said: "You have backbit him." They said: "O Messenger of Allah! We have mentioned about him something which is true." He  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) said: "It is bad enough that you have mentioned something about your brother which is true."[Al-Asbahani]

We should all ask ourselves: who among us is infallible? Who among us is free from errors, faults and sins? Who among us would be content to have everything about him, good and bad, spoken of by others? Any one of us becomes furious if he hears someone hinting something about him; so what would you do if it was said clearly and in detail, let alone behind your back?

'Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him said: “We were with the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention )when a man got up and left, whereupon another man immediately started backbiting him. The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) said: "Clean the bits of meat from between your teeth!" The man asked: "What should I clean from between my teeth? I haven't eaten any meat!" He  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) said: "You have eaten the flesh of your brother!"  [At-Tabarani]

This is the state of our community nowadays: any one of us may commit the sin of backbiting, but then will say: I didn't backbite, I didn't eat flesh, I haven't done anything! Why?

Because we have allowed our tongues to become accustomed to speaking this way, without knowing what backbiting is. Let us learn about our religion. Let us learn about what is lawful and unlawful - as much as we can - and distinguish between the speech which is lawful and the speech which is not.
The evil consequence of Gheebah:
Due to its negative impact on individuals and communities alike, the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) frequently made mention of backbiting, and greatly warned against it.
The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) said: “O you who have believed (only) with their tongues while (true) belief has not visited their hearts! Do not backbite Muslims nor pursue their defects (and faults), otherwise Allah will pursue your faults, and whomever Allah pursues his defects (and faults) He disgraces him even though inside his house.” [Ibn Abu Ad-Dunya]
The Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) showed us the safe way of freeing ourselves from the evil consequence of backbiting others when he  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) said: “Whoever has wronged his brother with regard to wealth or honor, should ask for his pardon (before his death), before he will pay for it (in the Hereafter) when he will have neither a Dinaar nor a Dirham (gold and silver currencies). (He should secure pardon in this life) before some of his good deeds are taken and paid to this (his brother), or (if he has no good deeds) some of the bad deeds of this (his brother) will be taken (from the person he wronged) and will be loaded on him.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]  - islamweb.net

Tuesday, 21 March 2017

Divorcing wife without directly telling her

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Question

Assalaamualaikum. My parents married me to my cousin eight years ago, but the marriage was never consummated. Now he is interested in another girl. My cousin told everyone in my family that he has divorced me. He admitted in front of all family members that he has done all that, but I did not see any paper of divorce and he did not pronounce the divorce in front of me. I want to know, if a man admits this in front of others but does not say these words in front of his wife, has divorce taken place then or not? Please inform me of what Islam says about this.

Answer

All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) is His slave and Messenger.
The scholars clarified the conditions under which divorce takes place, whether those are related to the husband issuing divorce, the divorced woman, or the wording. However, these conditions do not include the wife hearing her husband uttering divorce or knowing about it [divorce].
Rather, divorce takes place as soon as the husband issues it. According to the view of the majority of the scholars, it is recommended for the husband to have witnesses; some jurists even conditioned having witnesses for the benefit of protecting the rights and other benefits.
The fatwa of the Standing Committee for Issuing Fataawa reads, “...You (the husband) must announce your divorce to your wife, either by officially writing it or by making it known among the people; and you must have witnesses for it if you want to divorce her, because this leads to Islamic rulings and rights, and so that your wife would know her rights and obligations after divorce...
Therefore, the matter should not be left suspended like this. So if your husband has actually divorced you, then he should give you the divorce paper so that you can marry someone else. If he refuses to do so, then you should seek the help of rational people or take the matter to an Islamic court, if necessary.
Allah knows best.
-islamweb.net

Marrying someone's adopted son – the question of lineage

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Question

What is the ruling regarding the marriage between a woman of known parentage and a man who is someone's adopted child? Does the woman have a right to know his true lineage? If his true lineage comes to light only after the marriage and turns out to be inferior to her own, does she have a right to demand a divorce on those grounds?

Answer

An adopted child is usually of unknown parentage. If a woman marries a man who is someone's adopted child, the marriage is valid as long as the conditions of the contract are valid. 

As for his being her equal in lineage or of better pedigree than her, this is not necessary. The correct view among Islamic scholars is that it is not a consideration for marriage in Islam that the man enjoys an equal or superior lineage to the woman. 

This is because Allah says: “O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honored of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things). [Sûrah al-Hujurât: 13] 

Also, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “O people! Your Lord is One. Also, your first father is one. There is no preference for Arabs over non-Arabs, nor white people over black people. (Preference is only) by piety.” [Sahîh Muslim

Consequently, if the woman entered into the marriage knowing that her husband is an adopted child, she cannot later on use her husband's uncertain or inferior lineage as a basis to demand a divorce. 

The situation is different if the man had deceived her at the time of marriage by deliberately and falsely representing himself as belonging to a particular lineage which is not truly his own. This might be by his concealing the fact that he is adopted and openly professing a superior lineage. In this case, the deception can be grounds for her demanding a divorce. 

However, if the issue of his parentage simply never came up during the time of courtship and marriage discussions, then she cannot use his adopted status as grounds for divorce later on. 

This is because the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Any woman who asks her husband for a divorce without justification will be forbidden from the scent of Paradise.” [Musnad Ahmad (5/382) and Sunan Abî Dâwûd (1/216)] 

And Allah knows best.

-islamtoday.net