Explain to me the creed of Divine Decree in detail according to Islamic teachings.
Our faith in Divine Decree must be inclusive of the following four tenets:
1. We must believe that Allah has knowledge of everything that is going to happen. Allah says: “Know that Allah is capable of all things and that Allah comprehends everything with His knowledge.”
2. We must believe that Allah has recorded everything that will happen in creation in the Preserved Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfûz). Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said: “Allah recorded everything that will happen in Creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the Earth.” [Sahîh Muslim]. Allah says: “And of everything we have taken account in a clear book.”
3. We must believe that nothing happens in Creation except as Allah wills. Allah says: “And you do not will except that He wills.” Allah says: “Whomever He wills He misguides and whoever He wills he places on a straight path.” He also says: “If Allah had willed, they would not have engaged in polytheism.”
4. We must believe that Allah has created everything in existence. There is no creator, sustainer, or god besides Him. Allah says: “Allah is the creator of everything.” Allah says: “Allah created you and what you do.”
There are two groups of Muslims who held beliefs contrary to this truth:
1. The Qadariyyah: They denied Divine Decree. The Companions declared them unbelievers because by doing so they denied Allah’s eternal knowledge. They said that people create their own actions. They do not exist as a sect today, but there are still people around who claim that people create their own voluntary actions.
2. The Jabriyyah: They denied human free will and claimed that the actions of people are really nothing more than Allah’s actions. They conclude that people are not responsible for their own actions.
Ahl al-Sunnah takes a middle path between these two extremes. We believe in Divine Decree and we believe at the same time in human free will.