Islam

Islam

Sunday, 24 September 2017

The Four Aspects of Belief in Al-Qadr (Divine Decree)


Al-Qadr is an Arabic word meaning Allah’s predestination of measurements and sustenance of everything and everyone, according to His Knowledge and Wisdom. It comprises the following four aspects:
1. Knowledge - The belief that Allah’s knowledge encompasses everything, every matter, major or minor, and the time frame of everything that happens in this universe. Allah’s Knowledge encompasses all of His actions and actions taken by His slaves.
2. Pre-Recording - The belief that Allah recorded everything in a Tablet that He kept with Himself, called 'Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooth' (The Preserved Tablet). Allah Says (what means): “Do you not know that Allah knows what is in the heaven and earth? Indeed that is in a Record [i.e., Al-Lawh Al-Mahfooth]. Indeed that, for Allah, is easy.” [Quran 22:70] Abdullaah bin 'Amr bin Al-'Aas  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him said that he heard the Messenger of Allah  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) say: “Allah recorded the measurement of all matters pertaining to creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and earth.” [Muslim]
3. The Will of Allah - The belief that nothing, whether related to Allah’s actions or actions taken by His slaves, can occur without His permission. Allah Says (what means): “And your Lord creates what He wills and chooses...” [Quran 28:68] And (what means): “…And Allah does what He wills.” [Quran 14:27] And (what means) “It is He who forms you in the wombs however He wills…” [Quran 3:6] As for actions taken by His creation, Allah Says (what means): “…And if Allah had willed, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you.” [Quran 4:90] And (what means): “…And if Allah had willed, they would not have done so. So leave them and that which they invent.” [Quran 6:137]
4. Creation - The belief that Allah created all creation, all what they possess of attributes, and all their actions. Allah Says (what means): “Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is, over all things, Disposer of affairs.” [Quran 39:62] And (what means): “…He has created each thing and determined it with [precise] determination.” [Quran: 25:2] Also, Ibraheem  may  Allah  exalt  his  mention said to his people (what means): “While Allah created you and that which you do?” [Quran 37:96]
Believing in Al-Qadr, as described above, does not mean that people have no power over the actions they choose to take. The Sharee’ah (Islamic Law) as well as reality, confirm man has a will of his own:
As for the Sharee’ah, Allah Says about one’s own will (what means): “…So he who wills may take to his Lord a [way of] return [by obeying his commandments].” [Quran 78:39] And (what means): “So come to your place of cultivation however you wish …” [Quran 2:223] As for one’s own power over his actions, Allah Says (what means): “So fear Allah as much as you are able and listen and obey…” [Quran 64:16] And (what means): “Allah does not charge a soul except [with that within] its capacity. It will have [the consequence of] what [good] it has gained, and it will bear [the consequence of] what [evil] it has earned…” [Quran 2:286]
As for reality, every human knows that he has a power and a will of his own. He uses his power and will to indulge in or avoid actions of his choice. People distinguish between what they do by their own power and between what they have no power over, like shivering due to illness or the extreme cold. However, the power and will of mankind is under the control of Allah’s Will and Power; Allah Says (what means): “For whoever wills among you to take a right course. And you do not will except that Allah wills – Lord of the worlds.” [Quran 81:28-29]. The universe is Allah’s property and nothing happens in His Kingdom without His Knowledge and Permission.
Belief in Al-Qadr, as explained above, does not provide an excuse for mankind to sin or abandon what they are obligated to do. This excuse can be refuted by the following seven arguments:
1. Allah Says (what means): “Those who associated with Allah will say: 'If Allah had willed, we would not have associated [anything] and neither would our fathers, nor would we have prohibited anything.' Likewise did those before deny until they tasted Our punishment. Say: 'Do you have any knowledge that you can produce for us?' You follow not except assumption, and you are not but falsifying.” [Quran 6:148] The disbelievers did not have a valid excuse when they said that what they did was according to Al-Qadr. If this excuse was valid, then why will Allah punish them for their sins?
2. Allah Says (what means): “[We sent] messengers as bringers of good tidings and warners so that mankind will have no argument against Allah after the messengers. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.” [Quran 4:165] Sending the Messengers also took place according to Al-Qadr. This is why the disbelievers cannot use Al-­Qadr as an excuse for not believing, because Al-Qadr provided them with the means to escape Allah’s punishment by following His Messengers, may Allah exalt their mention.
3. Ali Ibn Abu Talib  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him narrated that the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) said: “The final destination, in Hell or Paradise, is already determined for each one of you.” A man said: “Should we depend on this fact, O Messenger of Allah?" (Meaning, to abandon doing good deeds) He  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allah exalt his mention ) said: “No! Perform (good) deeds, because everyone will be helped (to go on the path that he chooses and reach his destiny).” Then he read the verse (which means): “As for he who gives [in charity] and fears Allah.” [Quran 92:5]”
4. Allah conveyed His commandments to His slaves and did not require them to do what is beyond their capacity; He says: “So fear Allah as much as you are able…” [Quran 64:16] And: “Allah does not charge a soul except [with that within] its capacity…” [Quran: 2:286] If the slave is forced to do whatever deeds he performs, then Allah would have required from him what is beyond his capacity, and this is a false belief. For this reason, Allah forgives sins that take place because of ignorance or forgetfulness.
5. Al-Qadr is a matter of Allah’s Knowledge. No one can uncover his own Qadr except after it occurs. One’s intention to perform a deed precedes the action itself. He does not know what Al-Qadr holds for him. Therefore, Al-Qadr is not a valid excuse for sinning and abandoning the commandments of Allah.
6. One always seeks what is convenient for him. No one of sane mind would abandon what brings material benefit to him, saying that Al-Qadr forced him to take this course of action. Therefore, why would one use Al-Qadr as an excuse for abandoning what brings benefit to him in matters of religion and not do the same for matters of life?
7. If one of those who abandon the commandments of Allah and indulge in sinning comes under attack of his honour or possessions, would he accept the excuse of the attacker, if he says that he attacked him because it was his Qadr to attack him, and therefore he is not to be blamed? Indeed no! 
Therefore, why does this person refuse Al-Qadr as an excuse for whoever attacked him, and at the same time use Al-Qadr as his excuse for abandoning Allah’s rights on him?
It was reported that a man who was caught stealing was brought to 'Umar Ibn Al-Khattab  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him who ordered that this man’s hand be cut off. The man said: “Wait, O leader of the believers! I only stole because this was in the Qadr of Allah." 'Umar  may  Allah  be  pleased  with  him replied “And we are amputating your hand because it is in the Qadr of Allah.
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Saturday, 23 September 2017

Thuhr time for women and those who are not required to offer Friday prayer

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Question

When should women perform the Thuhr Prayer on Fridays? Should they perform it at the time of the Jumu‘ah Khutbah or after it? May Allah Reward you.

Answer

All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the Worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad , is His slave and Messenger.
The Thuhr Prayer is due when the sun passes the meridian and extends to when the shadow of an object is the same length as the object itself aside from the length of its shadow at noon.
This is the due time of the Thuhr prayer according to the Islamic Sharee‘ah. Muslims who are not obliged to perform the Jumu‘ah Prayer and are exempted from this religious duty such as women, should perform the Thuhr prayer at any time between its due beginning and end before the ‘Asr prayer. There is no blame in this and such an act is permissible, whether this person performed the Thuhr prayer during or after the Khutbah.
Ibn Qudaamah  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him said in Al-Mughni, "As for Muslims who are not obliged to perform the Jumu‘ah prayer such as the traveler, slaves, women, those who are sick and others who are exempted from performing it due to valid excuses, may perform the Thuhr prayer before the Imaam performs the Jumu‘ah prayer according to the opinion of the majority of Muslim scholars."
However, if the woman was somewhere near a mosque or can listen to the Khutbah, it would be good for her in order to listen so as to benefit from the Khutbah and then she can perform the Thuhr Prayer.
 Allah Knows best.

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No difference in the time of prayer for men and women

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Question

What are the times of prayer for a woman who does not pray at the mosque? Is it obligatory upon a woman to pray at the time of the Iqaamah (second call to prayer) or does every prayer have its special time?

Answer

All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah, and that Muhammad , is His slave and Messenger.
The times of prayer for a woman are the same as those for a man and there is no difference between them. However, it is obligatory upon a man to attend the prayer in congregation but this is not so for a woman. It is permissible for a woman to pray at any moment of the time of the prayer. However, it is better for her to pray at the beginning of the time like a man. It is not obligatory upon a woman to pray at the time of the Iqaamah. She can pray in the time of the prayer before or after the Iqaamah. She can know the beginning of the time through its signs if she knows them or through the Athaan if it is called in the due time. This is the basic ruling because the Mu’athin has a position of trust as the Prophet , said, as was narrated by Ahmad  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him.
As for the questioner’s saying: “Or does every prayer have its special time?” Yes, every prayer has its special time and there is no disagreement in this.
Allah Knows best.
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Catching time of prayer with one Rak'ah

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Question

Our honourable scholars, assalaamu alaykum, my question is about this hadith: Whoever catches a Rak'ah (unit of prayer) of a prayer before its time has expired has caught the entire prayer in its time.

Abu Hurairah reported that the Prophet, sallallaahu ʻalayhi wa sallam, said, "Whoever catches one Rak'ah of the prayer has caught the prayer." (Related by "the group") This refers to any of the prayers.

Al-Bukhaari has recorded, "Whoever of you catches one prostration of the afternoon prayer before the sun has set should complete his prayer. If one of you catches one prostration of the morning prayer before the sun has risen, he should complete his prayer."

Here, the meaning of prostration is Rak'ah. The clear meaning of the hadith is that one who catches one Rak'ah of the morning or afternoon prayer should complete the prayer even if the sun is setting or rising, although those are times in which it is disliked to pray. If one Rak'ah is performed, then the prayer is to be completed and the obligation of prayer will have been fulfilled although it is not allowed to intentionally delay those prayers until such times.

I found this in Fiqhussunnah, so I want to ask whether one Rak'at is considered complete at the first prostration or at the second? I also have heard that a Raka'h is considered complete at the Ruku' (bowing); kindly elaborate on when a Rak'ah is considered complete in order to catch it? May Allah reward you.

Answer

All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad, sallallaahu ʻalayhi wa sallam, is His slave and Messenger. 
Scholars held different views in this regard. Some held that when the person catches up with one Rakʻah of the prayer before its time expires, he has caught up with the prayer on time. However, others maintained that when one catches up with any part of the prayer, and not necessarily a full Rakʻah, such as a prostration or even Takbeerat Al-Ihraam (the opening Takbeer), before its time expires, then he has caught up with the prayer.
Ibn Qudaamah  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him said in Al-Mughni:
The same applies to all the prayers; when the person catches up with one Rakʻah of the prayer before its time expires, he has caught up with the prayer. The Prophet, sallallaahu ʻalayhi wa sallam, said, ‘Whoever catches up with a Rakʻah of the prayer (before its prescribed time ends), then he has caught up with the prayer on time.’ [Al-Bukhari and Muslim] Another version of the hadeeth reads, 'Whoever catches up with one Rakʻah of the ʻAsr prayer before the sun sets has caught up with the ʻAsr prayer.' [Al-Bukhari and Muslim] I do not know of any difference in opinion among scholars in this regard.” [Al-Mughni]
He  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him also said:
The question arises as to whether one catches up with the prayer if he manages to perform what is less than one Rakʻah or not. There are two reported scholarly views in this regard. The first view suggests that when one performs any part of the prayer less than one Rakʻah (such as a prostration or the opening Takbeer) before the time of the prayer expires, he has not caught up with the prayer. This is the apparent indication of the statement of Al-Khiraqi and the view of Imaam Maalik given the apparent indication of the hadeeth cited above. The hadeeth clearly underlined that when the person catches up with one Rakʻah of the prayer before its time ends, he has caught up with the prayer. This indicates that when the person performs any acts of the prayer less than one Rakʻah before the time of the prayer expires, he has not caught up with the prayer in its due time, similar to the case with the Friday prayer... ”
The second view suggests that when one performs any part of the prayer and not necessarily one Rakʻah before its time expires, he has caught up with the prayer. Al-Qaadhi said, “The apparent indication of Imaam Ahmad's statement suggests that when the person manages to perform any part of the prayer before its time expires, he has caught up with the prayer.” Abu Al-Khattaab said, “Whoever manages to recite Takbeerat Al-Ihraam (opening Takbeer) before the time of the prayer expires, he has caught up with the prayer.” This is the view held by Abu Haneefah. Ash-Shaafiʻi held two scholarly views in this regard like the two views in reference. And because Abu Hurayrah reported that the Prophet, sallallaahu ʻalayhi wa sallam, said, “If any one of you catches up with a prostration of the ʻAsr prayer before the sun sets, let him complete his prayer, and if he catches up with a prostration of the Fajr prayer before the sun rises, let him complete his prayer." [Al-Bukhari and Muslim] The version of An-Nasaa’i reads, “...then he has caught up with it.” And with regard to the issue of catching up with prayers, if it has to do with one of the rulings on the prayer, then catching up one Rak’ah or less is the same, such as the case of catching up with the congregational prayer and the traveler catching up with the prayer of a resident. The first hadeeth may refer to that (the first opinion) with its Mafhoom (the implied meaning), but the Mantooq (the pronounced meaning) is given priority over Mafhoom (i.e. the first Hadeeth implies that catching up with a Rak'ah is a condition of catching up with the prayer in its fixed time, but the second Hadeeth explicitly means that when one performs any part of the prayer and not necessarily one Rakʻah before its time expires, he has caught up with the prayer). Also, the legal analogy is invalidated by catching up with one Rakʻah without the Tashahhud." [Al-Mughni]

What is meant by catching up with one Rakʻah before the time of the prayer ends means managing to perform the Rakʻah in full: reciting the Faatihah, observing the condition of Tuma'neenah (tranquility in all the positions of the prayer), standing up straight after performing the pillars of the prayer such as Rukoo’ and prostration and the like. In the Maaliki book Minah Al-Jaleel, after citing Khaleel's statement, “When the person catches up with one Rak'ah of the Fajr prayer before its time expires, he has caught up with the prayer on time, Sheikh ʻUlayshsaid:
This means that the praying person must perform the Rakʻah in full, reciting the Faatihah moderately, observing the condition of Tuma'neenah, standing up straight after performing the Rukooʻ, and performing the Sujood (prostration). He must leave out the acts of Sunnah in this case, such as reciting another chapter of the Quran other than the Faatihah and what exceeds the Tuma'neenah in all the positions of the prayer; that is to be able to perform the Rakʻah before the time of the prayer ends...
The Shaafiʻi scholar Zakariyya Al-Ansaari  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him wrote:
If the person manages to perform one Raʻkah of the prayer before its time ends and not less than one Rakʻah, then he has caught up with the prayer in its time. This is evidenced by the hadeeth cited in Saheeh Al-Bukhari and Saheeh Muslim which reads, ‘Whoever manages to perform one Rakʻah of the prayer before its time expires has caught up with the prayer in time.’ The difference between the two cases (performing one Rakʻah and performing less than one) is that the one Rakʻah includes most of the acts of the prayer in general and the rest of the prayer could be seen as repetition of these acts. This is not the case when the person performs less than one Rakʻah. He underlined that the person still bears a sin for performing part of the prayer beyond its prescribed time although it would be considered to have been performed on time...” [Asna Al-Mataalib]
Ibn Hajar (Al-Haytami)  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him wrote, “...that is to be able to perform a complete Rakʻah concluded with the second prostration...” [Tuhfat Al-Muhtaaj]
Al-Bujayrimi  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him wrote, “If the remaining time is not enough for him to perform all the pillars of the Rakʻah, it is impermissible for the praying person to observe the acts of the Sunnah in this Rakʻah; in this case, he must confine himself to observing the obligations only (so as to be able to complete performing them before the time of the prayer ends)...” [Haashiyat Al-Iqnaa’]
On the other hand, according to the view of the majority of scholars, in the congregational prayer, the latecomer catches up with the imaam if he performs the Rukoo’ before the imaam raises his head from Rukoo’. Ibn ʻAbd Al-Barr  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him wrote:
The majority of the scholars maintained that when the latecomer catches up with the imaam while performing Rukoo’ in the congregational prayer and he (latecomer) can recite the opening Takbeer properly and bows and firmly places his hands on his knees before the imaam raises his head and ends the Rukoo’, then the latecomer has caught up with this Rakʻah. The latecomer who could not catch up with the imaam in the Rukoo’ and misses the Rakʻah has also missed the two prostrations, i.e. he should follow the imaam and perform them, but they do not count for him.” [Al-Istithikaar]
Allah knows best.
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Praying ‘Asr when shadow of object is twice its height

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Question

Do you know of any scholar who said that the ‘Asr prayer that is prayed after the shadow of an object becomes twice the height of the object (the time when Hanafis pray ‘Asr) will be completely invalid and unacceptable?

Answer

All perfect praise be to Allah, The Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, is His slave and Messenger. 
We do not know of any scholar who held that the ‘Asr prayer performed when the shadow of an object becomes twice its height is invalid. Rather, some scholars maintained that the optional time of the ‘Asr ends at that time, not that the time of the prayer comes to an end. Other scholars held that a person bears a sin for delaying the ‘Asr prayer beyond that time and that it is considered Qadhaa' (making up for a missed prayer), but not that it is invalid or unacceptable.
An-Nawawi  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him wrote, “The time of the ‘Asr prayer ends with sunset. This is the most likely correct view stated by Ash-Shaafi‘i and is held as the only sound view by the majority of his followers. Abu Sa‘eed Al-Istakhri held that the end of the time of the ‘Asr is when the shadow of an object becomes twice its height and that if the person delayed the prayer beyond this time, he bears a sin and it is considered Qadhaa'...” [Al-Majmoo’]
Allah knows best.
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Ending time of ‘Ishaa’ prayer

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Question

Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuhu, Shaykhs. I heard that there is a difference of opinion among the scholars regarding the ending time of the ‘Ishaa’ prayer, but I did not know what the right or most correct opinion on this is (which is till midnight and not till dawn), and Allah knows best. I read it a few days ago, and I want to know whether after having come to know that there is a difference of opinion on the matter, and given that I did not research this but nevertheless did pray the ‘Ishaa’ after midnight sometimes, do I need to repeat those prayers? I do not know the exact number and dates, except for one. Please advise, Shaykhs. May Allah reward you.

Answer

All perfect praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allah and that Muhammad , is His slave and Messenger.
The scholars held different views regarding the ending time of the ‘Ishaa’ prayer. The correct view according to the four (main) Schools of Fiqh is that the time of the ‘Ishaa’ ends at the rise of the true dawn.
The Hanafi scholar Al-Kaasaani  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him wrote, "According to our School, the time of the ‘Ishaa’ ends when the true dawn rises." [Badaa'i‘ As-Sanaa'i‘]
The Maaliki scholar ‘Ulaysh  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him wrote, "The preferred time of the ‘Ishaa’ lasts until the end of the first third of the night. It is also said that the preferred time of the ‘Ishaa’ lasts until dawn and that there is no time of necessity for it." [Minah Al-Jaleel]
The Shaafi‘i scholar An-Nawawi  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him wrote, "The preferred time of the ‘Ishaa’ ends when the first third of the night has passed, and then the time of necessity starts and lasts until the break of the second dawn. This is the default opinion in our School (the Shaafi‘i School)." [Al-Majmoo‘]
The Hanbali scholar Ibn Qudaamah  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him wrote, "It is permissible to delay the ‘Ishaa’ until midnight, and beyond midnight is the time of necessity ... it lasts until the rise of the second dawn." [Al-Mughni]
In brief, there are two times for the the ‘Ishaa’ prayer: a preferred time which starts when the twilight has disappeared and lasts until the first third of the night or its half has passed, and a time of necessity, which is after that and until the rise of dawn.
Hence, your ‘Ishaa’ prayer performed after midnight was valid, and you are not required to repeat it.
Our advice to you – after fearing Allah, the Exalted – is to hasten to perform the prayer at its preferred time, i.e. at the beginning of its prescribed time. ‘Abdullah ibn Mas‘ood  may  Allaah  be  pleased  with  him asked the Prophet  sallallaahu  `alayhi  wa  sallam ( may  Allaah exalt his mention ) "Which deed is loved most by Allah?" He replied, "Performing the prayer at its due time." [Al-Bukhaari and Muslim]
Al-Haafith Ibn Hajar  may  Allaah  have  mercy  upon  him wrote, "Ibn Battaal said: it is deduced from this hadeeth that it is better to perform the prayer at the beginning of its prescribed time." [Fat-h Al-Baari]
Allah knows best.
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Forbidden times for prayer

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Question

There is Hadith in Bukhari and Muslim regarding the forbidden time of prayers and it emphasizes not to pray during sunrise or sunset because the SUN is traveling in between the two hones of Satan. According to science every second the sun is rising and setting somewhere in the globe.

The question is - according to the above Hadith and science one cannot pray any time on this earth. Please shed some light on this.

Answer

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds; and may His blessings and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon all his Family and Companions.

The forbidden times of prayers are as follows:
-         From Fajr to sunrise.
-         Noontime.
-         From Asr until sunset
The evidence about this is the Hadith reported by Bukhari and Muslim: “There is no prayer after Fajr prayer until sunrise, and there is no prayer after Asr prayer until sunset.”

Imam Muslim reported the Hadith narrated by Uqba Bin Amir who said: “The Prophet (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) forbade us to pray or to bury our dead during 3 particular timeswhen the sun rises until it goes high in the horizon, when the sun is at its meridian until its goes past the meridian and the shadow of objects starts to appear, and when the sun sets until it is totally down.

As regards your statement that modern science affirmed that every second the Sun rises on one part of the world and sets on another, this scientific reality is known.  Allah Says (interpretation of meaning): {….He makes the night to go in the day and makes the day to go in the night…..}[39:5].

The Earth is round and it is continuously revolving around the Sun.  Therefore the Sun would be rising and setting continuously on the different parts of the world.  There is no contradiction between this and the forbiddance of praying at sunrise and sunset.  It is forbidden for anyone to pray at those times according to the place where he is located.The five daily prayers are obligatory on each individual person according to the place where he is.  When the starting time of the prayer begins, it is obligatory on him to pray.  This of course differs from one place to another.  For instance, in some places it is time for Zuhr prayer, while in some other places, it is time for Isha prayer.

Your saying that it is not permissible for a person, who knows this reality to pray, is rejected.  Dhuha (forenoon) for instance is not connected to any of the five daily prayers.  According to this scientific reality, despite the fact that the Sun rises every second on some parts of the world, Dhuha still exists along the whole day on the globe. Does this mean that whoever knows this reality it is not permissible for him to pray the five daily prayers for the whole day.

In conclusion, the Hadith forbids the prayer during these times; this is in relation to the person's location, or according to sunrise or sunset in relation to him, like the five daily prayers.

Allah knows best.  

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